Mechanical Engineering and Machine-building

Mechanical engineering is concerned with mechanisms, ... (gases, machines, air) and energy conversions and covers all manners of energy utilization with minimum pollution of the environment. It covers transport, machines and ... (bridge, manufacturing, engine) processes and the efficient use of mechanisms without excessive vibration and stresses. It covers materials and measurement and the processes of... (robot, welding, strengthening) treatment, and ... (reinforcing, tracing, raisin)} of the machine parts. All these aspects are connected with design, automation and ... (automation, motor, advanced) technology.

The main branches of industry in Nizhny Novgorod are machine- building and metal ... (performing, processing, identifying) followed by chemical and oil refining industry. Machine-tool building and metal working industries are focused on metalware and tool products for machine-building industries as well as on production of consumer goods and tools. The leading part in the machine-building belongs to the plant ... (increasing, producing, moving) milling machines equipped with microprocessors. The policy of machine-building industry is aimed at raising ... (reliability, workpiece, monotony) of the production, extending the service ... (work, development, life) of parts, increasing ... (productivity, machine-tool, control).

IV. Comprehension.

Exercise 8. Answer the following questions:

1. Is engineering a science?

2. How can we translate the word ? What are the Ukrainian equivalents for this term?

3. What do civil engineers deal with?

4. What are the main subdivisions in the field of civil engineering?

5. What do mechanical engineers deal with?

6. What knowledge is necessary for a mechanical engineering?

7. What are the four main branches of electrical engineering?

8. What are the major developments in the field of communication systems?

9. What are the major developments in the field of computer engineering?

10. What is aerospace engineering concerned with?

11. What do naval architects design?

12. What is marine engineering devoted to?

13. What is the task of chemical engineers?

14. What is nuclear engineering concerned with?

15. What does mechanical engineering cover?

Exercise 9. Look through the text A once more and give the main points of the text.

Exercise 10. Speak on the following problems :

· the most important branch of engineering;

· specialists working in different branches of engineering.

· Machine-tool building and metal working industries.

Exercise 11. Complete the table. Use the information from the text A:



V. Oral Practice.

Exercise 12. Compare the branches of engineering. What is common?

And What is different?

Exercise 13. Speak on the topic “ What is engineering?”. Use the table of ex. 11 as a plan.

VI. Reading.

Exercise 14. Read the text B without a dictionary and say what problems are mentioned in the text:

Text B.

TRENDS IN THE MODERN MACHINE-
BUILDING INDUSTRY

The scientific and technological progress will continue in engineering along two main headlines. Firstly, it is automation, including the creation of "unmanned" industries. Secondly, raising the reliability and extending the service life of machines.

This certainly requires new technology. The machine modules on a large scale are well suited for "unmanned" industries.

Intense work is being carried out on new robots. What we need is not merely manipulators which can take up a workpiece and pass it on, but robots which can identify objects, their position in space, etc.

We also need machines that would trace the entire process of machining. Some have been designed and are manufactured. Modern engineering thinking has created new automated coal-digging complexes and machine systems, installations for the continuous casting of steel, machine-tools for electrophysical and electrochemical treatment of metals, unique welding equipment, automatic rotor transfer lines and machine-tool modules for flexible industries.

New technologies and equipment have been designed for most branches of engineering.

In the shortest time possible the engineers are to start producing new generations of machines and equipment which would allow manufacturers to increase productivity several times and to find a way for the application of advanced technologies.

Large reserves in extending service life for machines can be found in the process of designing. At present, advanced methods have been evolved for designing machines proceeding from a number of criteria. Automatic design systems allow for an optimizing of the solutions in design and technology when new machines are still in the blueprint stage.

A promising reserve in increasing the life of pans is strengthening treatment. In recent years new highly efficient methods have been round.

First and foremost of them is the vacuum plasma methods for coating components with hard alloy compounds, such as nitrides and carbides of titanium, tungsten and boron. Methods have been designed for reinforcing machine parts most vulnerable to wear and tear, such as in grain harvesters, to make them last several times longer.

Thus, it is not merely quantity engineers and scientists are after, rather it is a matter of major characteristics. In other words, this is a matter of quality, and not of the mere number of new machines, apparatuses and materials.

VII. Comprehension.

Exercise 15. Find the sentences that correspond to the content of the text B:

1. There are two main trends in modern machine-building: automation and raising of the reliability of machines. 2. The creation of "unmanned" industries is included into automation. 3. Machine modules and robots are not suited for "unmanned industries". 4. Automation and raising of the reliability of machines require new technologies. 5. Advanced technologies are applied in most branches of engineering. 6. The service life of machine parts can't be increased by strengthening treatment. 7. Hard alloy compounds are employed for coating
components. 8. The process of designing can also be automated. This gives the advantage of optimizing solutions in design and technology.

Exercise 16. Answer the following questions :

1. What are the main trends in modern machine-building?

2. What does automation include?

3. In what way can automation be achieved?

4. What is the role of new technologies?

5. Give some examples of advanced methods for increasing the service life of machine parts.

6. How can the process of designing be improved?

7. What is the main task of the engineers and scientists developing new machines and technologies?

Exercise 17. Speak on the following problems:

· say how you understand the title of the text B;

· main fields of modern machine-building industry;

· the main types of automated machines and devices;

· the methods of extending the service life and raising reliability of modern machines.


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